Explain monera ,protista , fungi , plantae,animalia

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Kingdom Monera

  1. Kingdom Monera consists of prokaryotes. Monerans don’t have well-defined cell structures like nucleus or organelles.
  2. This is the kingdom of bacteria, Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and mycoplasma.
  3. Carl Woese divided the kingdom into two groups, namely, Archaebacteria (or Archaea) and Eubacteria (or Bacteria). Monerans exhibit diversity in characteristics.
  4. For example, some have cell walls while some do not.
  5. Some of the monerans have an autotrophic mode of nutrition i.e., they can synthesize food on their own while some other have a heterotrophic mode of nutrition.

Kingdom Protista

  1. Protista includes unicellular eukaryotes.
  2. Algae, diatoms, and protozoan like an amoeba, paramecium and euglena are few members of kingdom Protista.
  3. Like monerans, protists also exhibit both autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of nutrition. Some protists like protozoan have appendages for locomotion such as hair-like cilia, whip-like flagella.
  4. They have an asexual mode of reproduction like binary fission and spore formation.

Kingdom Fungi

  1. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms.
  2. They consist of both unicellular (e.g. Yeast, Molds) and multicellular (e.g. mushrooms) organisms.
  3. Like plant cells, fungi have cell walls made up of a complex sugar called chitin. But they do not perform photosynthesis; they have a heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
  4. They are saprophytes i.e.,they feed on dead and decaying organic matters.

Plant Kingdom – Plantae

  1. Plantae is the plant kingdom which includes all plants on the earth.
  2. They are multi-cellular eukaryotes. They consist of cell walls and chlorophyll.
  3. Plants are photosynthetic. Hence, they have an autotrophic mode of nutrition.
  4. The plant kingdom is a vast group; therefore, the kingdom is further classified into subgroups.

Plant kingdom has been divided into five subgroups. They are as follows:

  1. Thallophyta
  2. Bryophyta
  3. Pteridophyta
  4. Gymnosperms
  5. Angiosperms


  1. Kingdom Animalia consists of all animals. The animal kingdom is the largest kingdom among the five kingdoms.
  2. Animals are multicellular eukaryotes. But they don’t have a cell wall or chlorophyll like plants.
  3. Hence, members of the animal kingdom have a heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
  4. Kingdom Animalia has been classified into 10 different subphylums based on their body design or differentiation.

Different subphylums ofthe animal kingdom are as follows:

  • Porifera
  • Coelenterata (Cnidaria)
  • Platyhelminthes
  • Nematoda
  • Annelida
  • Arthropoda
  • Mollusca
  • Echinodermata
  • Protochordata
  • Vertebrata

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