Cellular respiration is a process in which a molecule of glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP and NADH. It starts with the glycolysis pathway which takes place in the cytosol. The end product of glycolysis is two molecules of pyruvate. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate undergoes aerobic respiration through TCA cycle which takes place in the mitochondria. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate undergoes anaerobic respiration and results in the production of lactic acid and alcohol.
In aerobic respiration, the molecule of pyruvate enters the mitochondria, where it undergoes oxidative phosphorylation which occurs on the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is also known as the electron transport chain, as the electrons transferred from NADH or FADH2 is responsible for the production of a large number of ATPs.