Give a reason for the following:
(a) The walls of the left ventricle are thicker than the walls of all other chambers.
(b) Blood flows away from the stomach and intestines is put into circulation via the liver and not directly.
(c) The blood groups of both the donor and recipient must be known before transfusing blood.
(d) Only the veins and not the arteries are provided with a valve.
(e) Atrial wall is less muscular than the ventricular wall.
(f) The arteries are deep-seated in the body.
(a) The left ventricle pumps blood to the farthest points in the body such as the feet, the toes and the brain against the gravity. Thus, it requires greater force to push the blood. In order to withstand with the force applied the walls of the left ventricle are thicker than the walls of all the chambers.
(b) The blood from the stomach and intestines enters the liver via the hepatic portal vein because the liver monitors all the substances that have to be circulated in the body. The excess nutrients such as glucose, fats are stored in the liver. Excess amino acids are broken down by the process deamination. Toxic substances are detoxified.
(c) During a blood transfusion, it is important that the blood groups of the donor and the recipient are compatible. In case of an incompatible blood transfusion, the recipient develops antibodies that attack the antigens present on the RBCs of the donor causing the blood cells to clump together which may result in death. The examination of the Rh factor is also necessary for the blood transfusion. Therefore, the blood groups of both the donor and recipient must be known before transfusing blood.
(d) Veins carry the blood from the body part towards the heart while the arteries carry the blood from the heart. Veins carry the blood against the force of gravity. Therefore, only the veins and not the arteries are provided with valves.
(e) Atrial wall is less muscular than the ventricular wall because the major function of atria is to receive blood from the body and pump it into very next ventricles. While the ventricles pump the blood out of the heart. Right ventricle to the lungs and the left ventricle to all the body parts.
(f) Arteries are responsible to carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues. The blood flows in the artery under high pressure and in spurts. If arteries are located superficially then there is a high possibility of their damage which could lead to a lot of blood loss. To prevent this damage and blood loss, the arteries are deep-seated in the body.