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Give one chemical test to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds:
(i) Zinc sulphate solution and zinc chloride solution.
(ii) Iron (II) chloride solution and iron (III) chloride solution.

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Solution

(i) Zinc sulphate and zinc chloride solutions are distinguished by adding barium chloride solution to both.
Chemical test Zinc sulphate solution Zinc chloride solution
Addition of barium chloride solution On reaction with barium chloride, it forms a white precipitate of barium sulphate, which is insoluble in mineral acids.
ZnSO4+BaCl2BaSO4+ZnCl2 White precipitate

It does not react with barium chloride solution.

(ii) Iron (II) chloride and Iron (III) chloride solutions are distinguished by adding sodium hydroxide solution to both.
Chemical test Iron (II) chloride solution Iron (III) chloride solution
Addition of sodium hydroxide solution It reacts with sodium hydroxide solution to form a dirty green precipitate of iron (II) hydroxide, which is insoluble in excess of sodium hydroxide.
FeCl2+2NaOHFeOH2+2NaCl Dirty green precipitate

It reacts with sodium hydroxide solution to form a reddish brown precipitate of iron (III) hydroxide, which is insoluble in excess of sodium hydroxide.
FeCl3+3NaOHFeOH3+3NaCl Brown precipitate


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