Question

# Give the necessary conditions and equations of getting ethanol from: (a) an alkyl halide (b) an ethene

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Solution

## (a) The hydrolysis of an alkyl halide by a dilute alkali can yield ethanol. The equation is: $\underset{\mathrm{Ethyl}\mathrm{bromide}}{{\mathrm{C}}_{2}{\mathrm{H}}_{5}\mathrm{Br}}+\underset{\mathrm{Aqueous}}{\mathrm{KOH}}\to \underset{\mathrm{Ethanol}}{{\mathrm{C}}_{2}{\mathrm{H}}_{5}\mathrm{OH}}+\mathrm{KBr}$ (b) Ethene, upon treatment with concentrated sulphuric acid at 80oC and 30 atm pressure, gives ethyl hydrogen sulphate, which reacts with boiling water or steam to give ethanol, while sulphuric acid is recovered: $\underset{\mathrm{Ethene}}{{\mathrm{C}}_{2}{\mathrm{H}}_{4}}+\underset{\mathrm{Conc}.}{{\mathrm{H}}_{2}{\mathrm{SO}}_{4}}\underset{80°\mathrm{C}}{\overset{80\mathrm{atm}}{\to }}\underset{\mathrm{Ethyl}\mathrm{hydrogen}\mathrm{sulphate}}{{\mathrm{CH}}_{3}{\mathrm{CH}}_{2}{\mathrm{HSO}}_{4}}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}{\mathrm{CH}}_{3}{\mathrm{CH}}_{2}{\mathrm{HSO}}_{4}+\underset{\mathrm{Boiling}}{{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}}\stackrel{}{\to }\underset{\mathrm{Etanol}}{{\mathrm{CH}}_{3}{\mathrm{CH}}_{2}\mathrm{OH}}+{\mathrm{H}}_{2}{\mathrm{SO}}_{4}$

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