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Question

How is destructive distillation of coal carried out? What are the products obtained and their main uses?


Solution

Destructive distillation of coal is carried out by heating coal strongly to 1000°C in the absence of air. When coal is heated without air, it does not burn but breaks down to produce following by-products:

(a) Coke: It is used in industries for manufacturing of steel and extraction of many metals. It is used as a domestic fuel for cooking and heating.

(b) Coal tar: It can be used to make soap, fats, dyes, plastics perfumes, drugs, pesticides, explosives etc.

(c) Coal gas: It is used as fuel in coal processing plants and in various other industrial units situated near coal processing plants.

(d) Ammonia: It is used for making nitrogenous fertilisers.

Science
Living Science (2020, 2021)
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