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Question

Hypothalamus is a super master endocrine gland. Elaborate.

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Solution

Hypothalamus is a very small but extremely important pad of the diencephalon that is involved in the mediation of endocrine, autonomic and behavioural function.

It contains several groups of neurosecretory cells called nuclei which produce hormones. Hypothalamus provides anatomical connection between the nervous and endocrine system. It controls the release of Major hormones by the hypophysis which are summarised below

(i) Adrenocorticotrophic Releasing Hormone (ARH) ft stimulates the anterior lobe of pituitary gland to secrete Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH). ACTH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of steroid hormones called glucocorticoids by adrenal glands.

(ii) Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) It stimulates the anterior lobe of pituitary gland to release Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH).

(iii) Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to release growth hormone or somatostatin.

(iv) Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to release gonadotropic hormones (FSH and LH).

(v) Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH) It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete prolactin.

(vi) MSH Releasing Hormone It stimulates the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSI)

These hormones released from hypothalamus are involved in the process like temperature regulation, control of water balance in body, sexual behaviour and reproduction control daily cycles in physiological state, behaviour and mediation of emotional responses. is called as super master endocrine gland of body.


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