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Identify the substances P, Q, and R in each case based on the information given below:
(i) The deliquescent salt P, turns yellow on dissolving in water, and gives a reddish brown precipitate with sodium hydroxide solution.
(ii) The white crystalline solid Q is soluble in water. It liberates a pungent smelling gas when heated with sodium hydroxide solution.
(iii) The pale green solid R turns reddish brown on heating. Its aqueous solution gives a white precipitate with barium chloride solution. The precipitate is insoluble in mineral acids.

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Solution

(i) P is ferric chloride. It is a deliquescent salt that gives yellow solution when dissolved in water. On reaction with sodium hydroxide, it forms reddish-brown precipitate of ferric hydroxide.
FeCl3+3NaOHFeOH3+3NaCl

(ii) Q is ammonium chloride. It is a white crystalline solid. It is soluble in water. When heated with sodium hydroxide, it liberates pungent-smelling ammonia gas.
NH4Cl+NaOHNH3+NaCl+H2O

(iii) R is ferrous sulphate. On heating, it turns reddish brown, forming ferric oxide. Aqueous ferrous sulphate reacts with barium chloride to form a white precipitate of barium sulphate, which is insoluble in mineral acids.

FeSO4+BaCl2BaSO4+FeCl2

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