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Question

If an Indian farmer wants to harvest a winter variety of wheat in June next year, then which of the following months is suitable for planting the crop this year?

A
March
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B
May
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C
September
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D
April
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Solution

The correct option is C September
There are typically four seasons in India: Winter, Spring, Summer, and Autumn. These seasons have different environmental conditions like duration of light or different temperatures. Such conditions affect flowering in plants. Vernalization is a phenomenon in which flowering depends on the exposure to low temperatures. Based on the seasons in which the plant is sown and its flowering is induced , plants can be classified into the following types:

a) Annual plants are those plants that tend to complete their life cycle within one year. These plants are further classified into:
i. Spring variety: They are planted in spring, and they produce seeds during autumn.
ii. Winter variety: They are planted in autumn, germinate in winter, grow in spring, and are harvested usually during mid-summer. If these winter varieties are planted in spring then they would normally fail to flower or develop mature grains within a year.

b) Biennial plants are defined as flowering plants that have a lifespan of 2 years. These are monocarpic plants that usually produce flowers and die in the second season.

c) Perennial plants can live for more than two years. They can produce flowers and bear seeds more than once in their life cycle.

In India, autumn begins in late September and as stated earlier, winter varieties are planted in autumn, so the winter variety of wheat is sowed in September so that it can be harvested during mid-summer in June.


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