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Question

# If the magnetic dipole moment and susceptibility of an atom of diamagnetic material and paramagnetic materials are denoted by μd, μp and χd, χp respectively, then

A
μd0, μp=0, χd<0, χp>0
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B
μd0, μp0, χd<0, χp>0
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C
μd=0, μp0, χd<0, χp>0
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D
μd=0, μp0, χd<0, χp<0
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Solution

## The correct option is C μd=0, μp≠0, χd<0, χp>0Diamagnetic materials: Diamagnetic materials have no net magnetic moment without the presence of an external applied magnetic field (H). However, as an external magnetic field is applied to a diamagnetic material, the spinning electrons experience a motion, producing electrical current and thus a magnetization (M), which is in the opposite direction to that of the external magnetic field, as schematically shown in the figure. Therefore, diamagnetic materials have a small negative magnetic susceptibility χd. Thus, μd=0 and χd<0 Paramagnetic materials: The paramagnetic materials having unpaired electrons, whose spins do not cancel each other are called paramagnetic. The magnetic moments of atoms are randomly orientated due to thermal agitation. When a magnetic field is applied, a few aligned magnetic moments produce a low magnetization in the direction of the field applied. So, the susceptibility of paramagnetic material is small and positive. Thus, μp≠0 and χp>0 Hence, option (D) is correct.

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