The correct option is D Predation
Populations of different species live together and interact in several ways. These are called interspecific interactions. Interspecific interactions can be beneficial, detrimental or neutral (neither harm nor benefit the species).
‘+’ sign is used to denote beneficial interaction, ‘-’ sign to denote detrimental (harmful) interaction and ‘0’ denotes neutral interaction.
The various interspecific interactions include mutualism, parasitism, commensalism, amensalism, competition and predation.
Predation is a type of interaction between two different species in which the predator eats another organism called prey. Hence, in predation, one species is benefited and the other is harmed. The predator is represented by ‘+’ sign as it gets benefited and ‘-’ sign is used to indicate prey as it gets harmed or destroyed.
In mutualism, the interacting species are closely associated with each other and are mutually benefited. As both the interacting species are benefited, ‘+’ and ‘+’ is used to denote both the species.
In commensalism, one species is benefited and the other is unaffected. The organism which derives the benefit is called commensal and is represented by ‘+’ sign and the organism which neither gets benefited or harmed is called host and is represented by ‘0’ sign.
In amensalism, one species is harmed and another species is neither harmed nor benefited. The organism which is harmed is represented by the ‘-’ sign and the other organism which is unaffected is represented by the ‘0’ sign.
Hence, the interspecific interaction represented as +, - is predation.