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Question

In each of the following questions below are given four statements followed by four conclusions numbered I, II, III and IV. You have to assume everything in the statements to be true even, if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts and then decide which of the four given conclusions logically follows from the statements, disregarding commonly known facts and select the appropriate answer. 

Statements:-
All documents are files.
Some files are papers.
All papers are certificates.
No certificate is a manuscript.

Conclusions:-
I. At least some documents are papers.
II. No manuscript is a document.
III. At least some certificates are files.
IV. No paper is a document.
  1. III follows
  2. I, II and IV follow
  3. II and III follow
  4. I and IV follow
  5. None of the above


Solution

The correct option is A III follows
All documents are files (A) + some files are papers (I) = A + I = No conclusion. Hence, conclusion I, II and IV do not follow. However, I and conversion of IV make a complementary pair. Hence, either I or IV follows. Again, some files are papers (I) + All papers are certificates (A) I + A = I = Some files are certificates conversion  some certificates are files. Hence, conclusion III follows.


Only conclusion III follows.

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