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Question

Name one source and one harmful effect of each of the following air pollutants :

(a) Sulphur dioxide

(b) Nitrogen oxides

(c) Carbon monoxide

(d) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)


Solution

a) Sulphur dioxide
Source:
Sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a gas primarily emitted from fossil fuel combustion at power plants and other industrial facilities, as well as fuel combustion in mobile sources such as locomotives, ships, and other equipment.

Harmful effect:
It irritates the nose, throat, and airways to cause coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, or a tight feeling around the chest. The effects of sulfur dioxide are felt very quickly and most people would feel the worst symptoms in 10 or 15 minutes after breathing it in.
 

(b) Nitrogen oxides
Source:

A natural source of nitrogen oxides occurs from a lightning stroke. The very high temperature in the vicinity of a lightning bolt causes the gases oxygen and nitrogen in the air to react to form nitric oxide. The nitric oxide very quickly reacts with more oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide.

Harmful effects

Nitrogen Oxide mainly impacts on respiratory conditions causing inflammation of the airways at high levels. Long-term exposure can decrease lung function, increase the risk of respiratory conditions and increases the response to allergens. NOx also contributes to the formation of fine particles (PM) and ground-level ozone, both of which are associated with adverse health effects.

(c) Carbon monoxide
Source:

Carbon monoxide (CO)  a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and toxic air pollutant—is produced in the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels, such as gasoline, natural gas, oil, coal, and wood. 

Harmful effects:

Symptoms and Health Effects. Breathing CO can cause headachedizziness,vomiting, and nausea. If CO levels are high enough, you may become unconscious or die. Exposure to moderate and high levels of CO over long periods of time has also been linked with increased risk of heart disease.

(d) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

Source:

The most common source of CFCs are refrigerants, but fire suppression systems for aircraft and aerosols also emit CFCs into the atmosphere.

Harmful effects: 
The  CFCs are particularly harmful when released into the atmosphere because of their destructive reaction with O-zone particles, which provide the Earth with a protective layer against UV radiation. 

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