The correct option is D All of the above
Passive absorption is a process where the molecules move freely along the concentration gradient i.e. from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration, without the use of metabolic energy.
Simple diffusion is a type of passive diffusion where the minerals follow the concentration gradient and move into the cell through the cell membrane's lipid layer. Generally, the lipid-soluble molecules undergo simple diffusion across the cell membrane.
Passive absorption of mineral ions can also occur via ion channels and transmembrane proteins.
When the mineral ions enter the cell through protein carriers (transmembrane protein), instead of passing through the lipid layers, it is called facilitated diffusion.
Ion channels are a type of transmembrane channels present on the cell membrane. Since the charged particles cannot pass freely through the cell membrane, the ion channels allow the passage of ions into the cell down the electrochemical gradient.