The correct option is C
3 and 4 only
The Cold War was an ongoing political rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies that developed after World War II. This hostility between the two superpowers was first given its name by George Orwell in an article published in 1945
Statement 1 is correct: The Cold War was not simply a matter of power rivalries, of military alliances,and of the balance of power.These were accompanied by areal ideological conflict as well,a difference over the best and the most appropriate way of organising political, economic,and social life all over the world.The western alliance, headed by the US, represented the ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the eastern alliance, headed by the Soviet Union, was committed to the ideology of socialism and communism.
In the event of a nuclear war,both sides will be so badly harmed that it will be impossible to declare one side or the other as the winner.Even if one of them tries to attack and disable the nuclear weapons of its rival, the other would still be left with enough nuclear weapons to inflict unacceptable destruction.This is called the logic of ‘deterrence’: both sides have the capacity to retaliate against an attack and to cause so much destruction that neither can afford to initiate war. Thus, the Cold War— in spite of being an intense form of rivalry between great powers —remained a ‘cold’ and not hot or shooting war. The deterrence relationship prevents war but not the rivalry between powers. Note the main military features of the Cold War. The two superpowers and the countries in the rival blocs led by the superpowers were expected to behave as rational and responsible actors. They were to be rational and responsible in the sense that they understood the risks in fighting wars that might involve the two superpowers.When two superpowers and the blocs led by them are in a deterrence relationship, fighting wars will be massively destructive.
Statement 2 is correct: The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc
The Non-Aligned Movement as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia in 1956 and was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni on 19 July 1956. The Declaration was signed by Yugoslavia's president, Josip Broz Tito, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser. One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but with the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another".The Movement advocated a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War.
Statement 3 is incorrect: Although the Cold War was mainly an ideological conflict between capitalism and Communism, there were also several Hot Points during the era like Korean war,Vietnam war and Bay of Pigs Invasion among others.
Statement 4 is incorrect: As a leader of NAM, India's Response to the ongoing Cold Warwas two-fold: At one level, it took particular care in staying away from the two alliances. Second, raised its voice against the newly decolonized countries becoming part of these alliances.India’s policy was neither negative nor passive. As Nehru reminded the world, non-alignment was not a policy of fleeing away’. On the contrary,India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften Cold War rivalries. India tried to reduce the differences between the alliances and thereby prevent differences from escalating into a full-scale war.Indian diplomats and leaders were often used to communicate and mediate between Cold War rivals such as in the Korean War in the early 1950s.