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Read the following passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.

PASSAGE 1

Improving efficiency of the logistics sector is of high importance for the country’s economy as it boosts economic growth, grows exports through global supply chains and generates employment. While India’s passenger and freight mobility sectors are becoming more efficient and the logistics is sector is growing at CAGR of 10.5% and expected to reach about USD 215 billion in 2020 , there are a set of interconnected problems in the system, which need to be addressed to further enhance efficiency. Logistical inefficiencies lead to reduced employment opportunities, perpetuate a poverty cycle for rural populations, make roads and highways unsafe, and contribute to pollution. Conversely, enhancing the efficiency of logistics can create high quality economic growth and employment opportunities, improve safety and public health, and support India’s successful fulfilment of international commitments towards climate change.

India is currently the fastest growing major economy globally, with GDP growing by 6.6% in 2017–2018 and expected to accelerate to 7.3% in 2018 and 2019. As a result of this rapid growth, India is poised to become the third largest economy in the world by 2030 and the second largest, after only China, in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) by 2040. In order to realize these projections, the Government of India (GoI) has launched the “Make in India” initiative with an aim to support the manufacturing sector of the Indian economy and elevate its contribution to GDP from the current 17% up to 25%. Efficient logistics are a cornerstone for the continuation of India’s economic development over the coming decades. The robust growth in manufacturing envisioned through the “Make in India” initiative will demand high levels of logistical efficiency, which means that goods must not only be produced, they must also be efficiently transported to markets at reasonable prices.

While the growth in GDP created by logistics improvements is important, even more important is the quality of that growth and the employment and income it creates, especially for the most economically vulnerable segments of the population. World Bank research in Latin America showed that reducing the share of logistics costs in the final price of goods by 14% can increase demand for those goods by 8–18% and increase employment in that sector by 2.5%– 16% . Such an impact is particularly important for micro small and medium enterprises, which employ over 110 million Indian citizens. Specifically for agricultural products, another critical sector of the Indian economy, the same reduction in logistics costs to 14% of final prices increased demand by 12% and increased agricultural employment by 6% —boosting both rural incomes and nutrition and food security for the entire country.

Q. Improvement in Logistical efficiency is of high importance for the country because

Select the correct answer using the code given below

निम्नलिखित गद्यांशों को पढ़ें और उन मदों का उत्तर दें जो प्रत्येक गद्यांश का अनुसरण करते हैं। इन मदों के लिए आपके जवाब केवल पैसेज पर आधारित होने चाहिए।

गद्यांश 1

देश की अर्थव्यवस्था के लिए रसद क्षेत्र की दक्षता में सुधार करना बहुत महत्वपूर्ण है क्योंकि यह आर्थिक विकास को बढ़ावा देता है, वैश्विक आपूर्ति श्रृंखलाओं के माध्यम से निर्यात को बढ़ाता है और रोजगार पैदा करता है। भारत के यात्री और माल ढुलाई के क्षेत्र अधिक कुशल होते जा रहे हैं और लॉजिस्टिक्स क्षेत्र 10.5% के सीएजीआर से बढ़ रहा है और 2020 में लगभग 215 बिलियन अमरीकी डालर तक पहुंचने की उम्मीद है । दक्षता बढ़ाने के लिए सिस्टम में समस्याओं का एक सेट है, जिसे दूर किये जाने की आवश्यकता है । तार्किक अक्षमताएँ रोजगार के अवसरों को कम करती हैं, ग्रामीण आबादी के लिए गरीबी चक्र को बनाए रखती हैं, सड़कों और राजमार्गों को असुरक्षित बनाती हैं और प्रदूषण में योगदान करती हैं। इसके विपरीत, रसद की दक्षता बढ़ाने से उच्च गुणवत्ता वाला आर्थिक विकास और रोजगार के अवसर पैदा हो सकते हैं, सुरक्षा और सार्वजनिक स्वास्थ्य में सुधार हो सकता है और जलवायु परिवर्तन के प्रति भारत की अंतर्राष्ट्रीय प्रतिबद्धताओं की पूर्ति हो सकती है।

2017-2018 में 6.6% जीडीपी के साथ भारत वर्तमान में विश्व स्तर पर सबसे तेजी से बढ़ने वाली प्रमुख अर्थव्यवस्था है । इस तेजी से विकास के परिणामस्वरूप 2030 तक भारत तीसरी सबसे बड़ी अर्थव्यवस्था बनने की ओर अग्रसर है और 2040 तक क्रय शक्ति समानता (पीपीपी) के संदर्भ में केवल चीन के बाद दूसरी बड़ी अर्थव्यवस्था बन सकती है । इन अनुमानों को साकार करने के लिए, भारत सरकार (भारत सरकार) ने "मेक इन इंडिया" पहल शुरू की है। भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था के विनिर्माण क्षेत्र का समर्थन करने और जीडीपी में इसके योगदान को मौजूदा 17% से बढ़ाकर 25% करने का लक्ष्य है। आने वाले दशकों में भारत के आर्थिक विकास की निरंतरता के लिए कुशल रसद एक आधारशिला है। "मेक इन इंडिया" पहल के माध्यम से विनिर्माण क्षेत्र में मजबूत वृद्धि उच्च दक्षता की रसद दक्षता की मांग करेगी, जिसका अर्थ है कि माल न केवल उत्पादित किया जाना चाहिए बल्कि उसे उचित मूल्य पर बाजारों में कुशलता से पहुंचाया जाना चाहिए।

लॉजिस्टिक्स सुधारों द्वारा बनाई गई जीडीपी में वृद्धि महत्वपूर्ण है पर इससे भी अधिक महत्वपूर्ण है विकास की गुणवत्ता और इससे पैदा होने वाला रोजगार और विशेष रूप से जनसंख्या के सबसे आर्थिक रूप से कमजोर वर्गों की आय में बढ़ोत्तरी । लैटिन अमेरिका में विश्व बैंक के शोध से पता चला है कि माल की अंतिम कीमत में रसद लागत के हिस्से को 14% तक कम करने से उन सामानों की मांग 8-18% बढ़ सकती है और उस क्षेत्र में रोजगार में 2.5% - 16% की वृद्धि हो सकती है। ऐसा प्रभाव सूक्ष्म लघु और मध्यम उद्यमों के लिए विशेष रूप से महत्वपूर्ण है, जो 110 मिलियन से अधिक भारतीय नागरिकों को रोजगार देते हैं। विशेष रूप से कृषि उत्पाद भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था के लिए एक और महत्वपूर्ण क्षेत्र है । अंतिम कीमतों पर रसद की समान लागत में 14% तक की कमी करने से 12% तक मांग में वृद्धि हुई है और 6% तक कृषि रोजगार में वृद्धि हुई है जिससे ग्रामीण आय , पोषण और खाद्य सुरक्षा दोनों बड़ी है ।

Q. रसद दक्षता में सुधार देश के लिए उच्च महत्व का है क्योंकि

नीचे दिए गए कोड का उपयोग करके सही उत्तर चुनें


A

1 and 2 only
केवल 1 और 2
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B

1 and 3 only
केवल 1 और 3
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C

2 and 3 only
केवल 2 और 3
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D

1, 2 and 3
1, 2 और 3
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Solution

The correct option is A
1 and 2 only
केवल 1 और 2

Explanation:

Statement 1 and 2 are correct.

Refer the following lines “enhancing the efficiency of logistics can create high quality economic growth and employment opportunities, improve safety and public health, and support India’s successful fulfilment of international commitments towards climate change. “

These lines discuss high economic growth, employment, improved safety and public health as effects of improvement in logistical efficiency.

Hence those statements are correct.

Statement 3 is incorrect.

The effect of logistical efficiency on improvement of crude oil consumption is not discussed in the passage; hence the statement can be discarded.

व्याख्या :

कथन 1 और 2 सही हैं।

निम्नलिखित पंक्तियों को देखें "लॉजिस्टिक्स की दक्षता बढ़ाने से उच्च गुणवत्ता वाले आर्थिक विकास और रोजगार के अवसर पैदा हो सकते हैं, सुरक्षा और सार्वजनिक स्वास्थ्य में सुधार हो सकता है, और जलवायु परिवर्तन के लिए अंतर्राष्ट्रीय प्रतिबद्धताओं की भारत की सफल पूर्ति का समर्थन कर सकता है।"

इन पंक्तियों में उच्च आर्थिक विकास, रोजगार, बेहतर सुरक्षा और सार्वजनिक स्वास्थ्य पर चर्चा की जाती है, ताकि रसद दक्षता में सुधार हो।

इसलिए वे कथन सही हैं।

कथन 3 गलत है।

कच्चे तेल की खपत में सुधार पर रसद दक्षता का प्रभाव पारित होने पर चर्चा नहीं की जाती है; इसलिए बयान को खारिज किया जा सकता है।


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Q. Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions.

On attending a conference which focused on the role of the service sector in the Indian economy, I was amazed. The conference gave a very interesting perspective on the role of the service sector in the rate in agriculture and industry. The current situation in India is that the growth rate of services has overtaken both agriculture and industry and is now contributing to more than fifty percent of GDP. The services sector has the highest growth rate and is the least volatile sector. Growth is particularly marked in public services, IT and financial services. In some areas the growth rate of services sector is forty to fifty percent due to increased use of mobile technologies. India, therefore, has a services oriented economy. It hasn’t followed traditional growth models as in China. However, in the process of doing so it has skipped the manufacturing stage and has jumped straight from the agricultural stage to service stage, which is also the main reason for the expansion of the service sector. In fact, the situation now is such that the growth in the service sector can and will support the growth in the service sector can and will support the growth in the agricultural and industrial sectors. However, the only setback for Indian economy is the lack of growth in the manufacturing sector, which causes dependence on other countries, which is not so desirable in terms of job creation and increase in prosperity. Population is also a major concern of the Indian economy. As the population of India grows so also does the number of dependents in the population both in the lower and higher age groups. In such a scenario of increasing population, from crisis, growth becomes difficult. For such an economy to grow it has to invest. Currently, the public sector invests more than it saves. The household sector saves in surplus but it is not increasing, so it cannot continue to support private and public sectors. There is a massive need to spend on agriculture and infrastructure development of the country. A part from health, education should also be the priority of the government, particularly the education of women, in order to reduce the birth rate.
However, all said and done, we cannot deny the fact that growing population of the country can also benefit the economy if considered as a resource and used efficiently. In fact, it is said that in the next two decades a ‘growth window’ for India will open, which may not come again because the working population to total population ratio will rise up to mid 2030s only. It is important for India of maximize its economic growth in this period. For doing so, it will be important of Indian to absorb the growing labour force. This would mean that most people in the country would be employed (with a steady income), the number of dependents in the population would reduce and with effect the economy would prosper. Absorbing the labour force is also very important if the service sector is to play a key role in the growing Indian economy. Today to address the issue of poverty in India, there is a need to change the bad sectors into good sectors and in turn to move people from unemployment to employment. Only the service sector can help in doing so and thus can have major impact on poverty. Although service – intensive sectors such as hotels, restaurant and IT are booming with growth in human skills, there are geographical, labour unions and human skills restrictions on labour movement. The key question here, I suppose, is that – can service sector lead the economy? For example, can service such as IT be taken to rural areas? Experts in the conference have suggested that it seems that services could lead the economy. However, there are certain prerequisites for the same. In order words, there needs to he great equality between the different states and better gender balance. There is also the need for additional fiscal equality, tax reforms to fund education, reeducation in government debt, and the revenue account must be kept in balance. Progress is good but still the initial conditions for growth have not yet been achieved.

What does the author mean by the statement, “ ___ a ‘growth window’ for India will open”?
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On attending a conference, which focused on the role of the services sector in the Indian economy I was amazed. The conference gave a very interesting perspective on the role of the service sector in the growth of the Indian economy in relation to growth rates in agriculture and industry. The current situation in India is that the growth rate of services has overtaken both agriculture and industry and is now contributing to more than 50% of GDP. The service sector has the highest growth rate and is the least volatile sector. Growth is particularly marked in public services, IT and financial services.

In some areas, the growth rate of the service sector is 40-50% due to increased use of mobile technologies. India, therefore, has a service-oriented economy. It hasn't followed traditional growth models as in China. However, in the process of doing so it has skipped the manufacturing stage and has jumped straight from the agriculture stage to service stage, which is also the main reason for the expansion of the service sector. In fact, the situation now is such that the growth in the service sector can and will support the agriculture and industrial sectors. However, the only setback for the Indian economy is the lack of growth in the manufacturing sector which causes dependence on other countries, which is not so desirable in terms of job creation and increased prosperity.

Population is also a major concern of the Indian economy. As the population of India grows so also does the number of dependents in the population in both the lower and higher age groups. In such a scenario of increasing population, especially in an economy which is still recovering from the crisis, growth becomes difficult. For such an economy to grow it has to invest. Currently, the public sector invests more than it saves. The household sector saves in surplus, but it is not increasing so it cannot continue to support private and public sectors. There is a massive need to spend on agriculture and infrastructure development in the country. Apart from that, health and education should also be the priority of the government particularly the education of women in order to reduce the birth rate.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following is/ are true about the impact of increasing population on the Indian economy?


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