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Question

Read the following statements and identify the correct option that is a criticism of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

A. Darwinism explains the arrival of the fittest
B. Darwinism did not explain the evolution of terrestrial animals from aquatic forms
C. It explains the presence of vestigial organs
D. Darwinism did not differentiate between somatic and germinal variations

A
A, B and C are correct
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B
B and D are correct
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C
A, C and D are correct
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D
A and C are correct
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Solution

The correct option is B B and D are correct
According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, in the struggle for existence, only those members who possess useful variations (the characters more suitable for the environment) will be selected by nature. The fit individuals selected will reproduce more and this is called natural selection. Survival of fittest is the end result of the ability to adapt and get selected by nature.

Darwin’s theory was reasonable and well documented. But it was strongly criticized by scientists like Sir Richard Owen and Adam Sedgwick. The main criticisms of Darwinism were:
  • Darwinism explained the survival of the fittest but not the arrival of the fittest.
  • Natural selection did not explain the evolution of terrestrial animals from aquatic forms.
  • It did not explain the effect of use and disuse of organs and the presence of vestigial organs. Example: Presence of vermiform appendix.
  • Darwinism did not differentiate between somatic and germinal variations and considered all variations are heritable.
  • It did not explain about the phenomenon of extinction of those organisms who had many specialized organs. Example: Extinction of mammoth.

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