Rutherford's alpha particle scattering experiment established that:
protons are not evenly distributed throughout an atom
electrons have a negative charge
electrons have a positive charge
atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons
The correct option is A protons are not evenly distributed throughout an atom Most of the $$\alpha$$-particle passed through the foil straight without suffering any change in their direction. This shows that most of the space inside the atom is empty or hollow.
A small fraction of $$\alpha$$-particles was deflected through small angles and a few through larger angles. For this to happen $$\alpha$$- particles (positively charged) must approach a heavy positively charged core inside the atom (like charges repel each other). This heavy positively charged core inside the atom was named the nucleus.
Hence, it concluded that protons are not distributed throughout an atom.