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State:
(a) Gay - Lussac's Law of combining volumes,
(b) Avogadro's law.

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Solution

(a)Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes states that when gases react, they do so in volumes which bear a simple ratio to one another, and to the volume of the product(s) formed if gaseous, provided the temperature and pressure remain constant.

The law explains experimental facts about how gaseous atoms combine. Example:

For the reactions:

(i) N2(g)1 Vol+3H2(g)3 Vols2NH3(g)2 Vols

1 volume of nitrogen combines with 3 volumes of hydrogen to form 2 volumes of ammonia.

(b)Avogadro’s Law (sometimes referred to as Avogadro’s hypothesis or Avogadro’s principle) is a gas law; it states that under the same pressure and temperature conditions, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules. Thus, the number of molecules or atoms in a specific volume of ideal gas is independent of their size or the molar mass of the gas. For example, 1.00 L of N2 gas and 1.00 L of Cl2 gas contain the same number of molecules at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP).


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