The correct option is A Foundational challenge
Different countries face different kinds of challenges. At least one fourth of the globe is still not under democratic government. The challenge for democracy in these parts of the world is very stark. These countries face the foundational challenge of making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government. This involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling government and establishing a sovereign and functional state. For example, Nepal was under Monarchy till recent times. Now Nepal has changed to a democratic system. Certain mindsets and systems will take years to change as they have taken years to develop. Nepal is a very good example of foundational challenge of democracy. Hence, Option A is correct. The rest of the challenges are not faced in the transitional period, but only after establishment of secure democracy, hence, incorrect.