The courts can issue various writs to enforce rights. Consider the following statements:
1. The writ of Prohibition is issued by a higher court or Supreme Court when a lower court has considered a case going beyond its jurisdiction.
2. The writ of Quo Warranto can be issued if the court finds that a person is holding office but is not entitled to hold that office.
3. Under the writ of Certiorari, the court can order a lower court or another authority to transfer a matter pending before it to the higher authority or court.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
Habeas Corpus means "you may have the body." The writ is issued to produce a person who has been detained, whether in prison or in private custody, before a court and to release him if such detention is found illegal.
Mandamus means "We Command". Mandamus is an order from the Supreme Court or High Court to a lower court or tribunal or public authority to perform a public or statutory duty. This writ of command is issued by the Supreme Court or High court when any government, court, corporation or any public authority has to do a public duty but fails to do so.
Certiorari means to be certified. The writ of certiorari can be issued by the Supreme Court or any High Court for quashing the order already passed by an inferior court, tribunal or quasi-judicial authority.
There should be court, tribunal or an officer having legal authority to determine the question with a duty to act judicially.
The Writ of prohibition means to forbid or to stop and it is popularly known as 'Stay Order'. This writ is issued when a lower court or a body tries to transgress the limits or powers vested in it. The writ of prohibition is issued by any High Court or the Supreme Court to any inferior court, or quasi-judicial body prohibiting the latter from continuing the proceedings in a particular case, where it has no jurisdiction to try. After the issue of this writ, proceedings in the lower court etc. come to a stop.
Difference between Prohibition and Certiorari:
While the writ of prohibition is available during the pendency of proceedings, the writ of certiorari can be resorted to only after the order or decision has been announced.
Both the writs are issued against legal bodies.
The word Quo-Warranto literally means "by what warrants?" or "what is your authority"? It is a writ issued with a view to restrain a person from holding a public office to which he is not entitled. The writ requires the concerned person to explain to the Court by what authority he holds the office. If a person has usurped a public office, the Court may direct him not to carry out any activities in the office or may announce the office to be vacant. Thus High Court may issue a writ of quo-warranto if a person holds an office beyond his retirement age.
Conditions for issue of Quo-Warranto
The office must be public and it must be created by a statue or by the constitution itself.
The office must be a substantive one and not merely the function or employment of a servant at the will and during the pleasure of another.
There must have been a contravention of the constitution or a statute or statutory instrument, in appointing such person to that office