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Question

The reaction of white phosphorus with aqueous NaOH gives phosphine along with other Phosphorus containing compound. the reaction type and the oxidation state of phosphorus in phosphine and the other product  are respectively


Solution

Actually, there are two reaction involving:
  1. P
    4
    +3NaOH+3H
    2
    O⟶PH
    3
    +3NaH
    2
    PO
    2
    PX4+3NaOH+3HX2O⟶PHX3+3NaHX2P

White phosphorus react with sodium hydroxide and water to produce phosphine and sodium hypophosphite . Sodium hydroxide - cold, concentrated solution. This reaction takes place slowly. 
The O.S. of phosphorus in sodium hypophosphite is calculated in @Sayantan.G's answer.
  1. P
    4
    +8NaOH+4H
    2
    O


    Δ
    4
    Na
    2
    HPO
    3
    +6H
    2
    PX4+8NaOH+4HX2O→Δ4NaX2HPOX

White phosphorus react with sodium hydroxide and water to produce disodium hydrogen phosphite and hydrogen. Sodium hydroxide - concentrated solution. The reaction takes place in a boiling solution.()
The O.S. of phosphorus in disodium hydrogen phosphite is:
+2⋅1+1+x+3⋅(−2)=0
+2⋅1+1+x+3⋅(−2)=0
x=+3
x=+3

When Phosphorous reacts with
NaOH
NaOH
. It produces Phosphine and Sodium Hypophosphite.
The reaction is as follows:-
4P+3NaOH+3H 2 O⟶PH 3 +3
NaH
2
PO
2

4P+3NaOH+3HX2O⟶PHX3+3NaHX2POX2
Oxidation State of Phosphorous in Sodium Hypophosphite is
+1
+1
As
Na
Na
is
+1
+1
,
H
H
is
+1
+1
and
O
O
is
−2
−2
.

Solution:-
1+1∗2+X−2∗2=0
1+1∗2+X−2∗2=0
(As net charge is zero)
Solving X
X
gives +1
+1
.

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