The correct option is D All of the above
The modification of the genetic material (RNA or DNA) of organisms to use them to produce commercially important substances is called genetic engineering.
Techniques in genetic engineering
Techniques in genetic engineering include the following:
The formation of recombinant DNA
Recombinant DNA creation
Recombinant DNA is formed by the introduction of a foreign DNA (containing the gene of interest) into the vector DNA. This process involves the use of restriction endonucleases and ligases.
In gene transfer, the gene of interest is introduced into vector DNA and transferred to the host cell by transformation for the expression of a given character.
The recombinant DNA can replicate by itself in the host cell, thus, multiple copies of the gene of interest are formed. This process is called gene cloning.
(D) All of the above