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Question

What are differences between the following :

(a) Cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes ;

(b) Amphibia and Reptilia ;

(c) Aves and mammals.


Solution

(a) 
Cartilaginous fish Bony fish
They have a cartilaginous endoskeleton. They have a bony endoskeleton.
They contain 5-7 pairs of gill slits and operculum is absent in them. They contain 5-7 pairs of gill slits which are covered with an operculum.

(b) 
Amphibia Reptilia
They have a glandular, smooth and moist skin. They have a non-glandular, dry and keratinised skin.
Fertilisation is external. Fertilisation is internal.

(c) 
Aves Mammals
The body is covered with feathers and scales. They lack feathers and scales; however, they have hair on their body.
They have a toothless beak and hollow and pneumatic bones. They do not have beaks; teeth are present and the bones do not possess air cavities.

Science
P S Verma Biology (2020, 2021)
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