Question

What are the $5$ types of measurements?

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Solution

**Types of measurements**

$5$ types of measurements are:

- Indirect method of measurement.
- Direct method of measurement.
- Fundamental method of measurement.
- Substitution method of measurement.
- Comparison method of measurement.

**Indirect measurement **

- Indirect measurements are made by comparing the dimensions of a target to a reference object, such as gauge blocks or ring gauges, using measuring tools like dial gauges.
- Due to the fact that a comparison is made using an object having standard dimensions, these measurements are sometimes referred to as comparative measures.
- The measurement becomes simpler the more rigidly defined a reference device's shape and dimensions are.
- The narrow measurement range of this approach is another drawback, though.

**Direct method of measurement**

- Direct measurements involve taking measurements of the target's dimensions using tools like Vernier calipers, micrometers, and coordinate measuring machines.
- They are also referred to as absolute measurements.
- The measuring instrument's scale allows measurements to be made across a wide range, however, there is a danger that the measurement will be off due to inaccurate scale readings.

**Fundamental method of measurement.**

- The basic measurement method bases its measurement on the measurement of the base quantities that serve as the quantity's definition.
- The definition of the quantity being measured and the quantity itself are both directly measured.
- Examples include using a fixed point instrument to measure temperature.

**Substitution method of measurement.**

- In the substitution method, the value of the quantity being measured is not determined indirectly from a reading of the measuring instrument, but rather from the magnitude of the standard, which is chosen or regulated in such a way that the measurement instrument's reading is maintained when the quantity being measured is replaced by the standard.
- In order to weigh an object on a beam balance, for instance, the object is removed from the pan and replaced with weights of equal total weight; the balance will display the prior reading (the Borda method).
- Measurements of electrical properties including resistance, capacitance, and inductance are frequently conducted using the replacement approach.

**Comparison method of measurement.**

- The value of the quantity to be measured is compared with another quantity that is practically connected to it or with a known value of the same quantity in this method.
- Therefore, only deviations from a master gauge, such as dial indications or other comparators, are determined using this method.

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