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What are the characteristics of s, p ,d, f  block elements?


Solution

Properties of s-Block elements (contain s-electrons in their valence shell)

Except H all elements of s-Block elements are active metals.

They have +1/ +2 oxidation state.

They form basic oxides

They impart characteristic colour to the flame

Generally they form ionic salts with nonmetals.

They have low ionization potentials.

They have very small electron gain enthalpies.

They are solids at room temperature (Cs is liquid at about at 35oC)

Their hydroxides are basic in nature.



Properties of p-Block elements: (contain p-electrons in their valence shell)

Most of p-Block elements are non-metals.

They have variable oxidation states.

They form acidic oxides

They impart no characteristic colour to the flame

Generally they form covalent compounds. Halogens form salts with alkali metals
They have high ionization potentials.

They have very large electron gain enthalpies.

They are solids/liquids/gases at room temperature (Br is liquid)

The aqueous solutions their oxides are acidic in nature.



Properties of d-Block elements: (contain d-electrons in their valence shell).

These elements lie in between s-block and p-block elements. These elements are called transition elements as they show transitional properties between s and p-block elements. The general electronic configuration of d-block elements is (n-1)d1-10ns0-2.

Most of the d-block elements are metals.

Most of them exhibit variable oxidation states because of the presence of partly filled d-orbitals. (Except Sc, Zn, Cd etc.)
Many of their compounds are coloured.
They readily form complexes by acting as Lewis acids. They easily form complexes (coloured). Most of them and their compounds show paramagnetic, ferromagnetic behaviour. They act as good catalysts.
Properties of f-Block elements: (contain f-electrons in their valence shell).




Electronic configuration: ns2 (n-) d0-1(n-2) f1-14








f – block elements are also called as inner transition elements. They are: Lanthanides and actinides.

Lanthanides. (58Ce- 71Lu )

Actinides are the elements in which the last electron enters into 5f-orbital
All lanthanides closely resemble lanthanum
Lanthanoids are chemically similar to each other
Except for cerium (III and IV) and europium (III and II), the lanthanides occur as trivalent cations in nature. Most lanthanides are widely used in lasers
These elements deflect UV and Infrared electromagnetic radiation and are commonly used in the production of sunglass lenses. 
The ionic radii of the lanthanoids decrease through the period — the so-called lanthanide contraction
Actinides( 90Th– 103Lr)

· All the actinides are radioactive

· These are highly electro-positive ( show+3,+4,+5,+6 oxidation states)

· These metals tarnish in air

· They have number of isotopes.

· They react with boiling water or dilute acids to give H2 gas.

· These directly combine with non-metals.


Similarities between Lanthanides and Actinides:
· Both lanthanides and Actinides show +3 oxidation states
· Both are electropositive and very reactive
· Both are paramagnetic

Hope this helps :) 

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