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Question

What are the postulates of valence bond theory ?


Solution

Valence bond theory : 
 i) The Central metal. atom/ion Makes available a number of vacant orbitals equal to its coordination  number 
ii) These vacant orbitals form covalent bonds with the ligand oerbitals.
iii) A covalent boil& is formed by the overlap of vacant metal orbital and filled ligand orbitals. This complete overlap leads to the formation of a metal ligand, a bond. 
iv) A strong covalent is formed only when the . orbitals overlap to the Maximum extent. This maximum overlapping is possible only when the metal vacant orbitals undergo  process called.
 A hybridised orbital characteristics than an has a better directional unhybtidised one.
v) The following table gives the coordination number, orbital hybridisation and spatial geometry of the more important geometries.
Coordination number
Types of hybridisation
Geometry
2
$$sp^1$$
linear
4
$$sp^3$$tetrahedral
4
$$sp^2$$square planar
6
$$d^2sp^3$$Octahedral
6
$$sp^3d^2$$
Octahedral
Magnetic moment
 A species having atleast one unpaired electron, is said to be pan magnetic. It is attracted by an external field. The paramagnetic moment is given by, the following spin-only formula
$$\mu_3=\sqrt{n(n+2)BM}$$
$$\mu_3$$= spin-only magnetic moment 
n = number of unpaired electrons
BM = Bohr magneton, the unit which expresses the magnetic moment.

Chemistry

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