Actually, every object outer layer is not fine, when we rub two object , outer layer of objects meet with each other and fitted like a zig-saw. This oppose the motion. As, this is only possible in solid.
In water and gas , molecule collide with each other and oppose motion.
Special case : Greater the rough surface , greater the friction
But this is not apply on all object , there are also other factors which affect friction,
Like two plane glass , stuck with high friction as they are not rough surface
cause of friction is attraction between molecules near the surface of the objects. What you describe is electrostatic induction. This could be the source of the attractive force in some cases.