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Question

Which is the strongest alkali?


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Solution

Alkali:

  1. The first column of the periodic table is known as the alkali metals.
  2. Alkali elements are the base that dissolves in the water.
  3. These elements are soapy to touch, bitter, and corrosive.
  4. The reaction between an alkali metal and water forms hydroxide that converts the neutral metal to a monovalent cation in the process.
  5. These have low ionization energy that can easily lose their valence electron and acts as reducing agents.
  6. These are highly reactive due to the transfer of the outermost electron with a very high energy-intensive to the adjacent highly noble gas.

Uses:

  1. It is mainly used in the manufacture of hard soaps.
  2. It is used as a cleaning agent in the industrial process.
  3. It is also used in the water treatment process to raise the pH value.

Temperature effect on pH-

  1. When the temperature of a solution rises, the molecular vibrations in the solution rise resulting in the ionization and formation of H+ ions.
  2. More H+ ions lead to more acidic behavior.
  3. Owing to temperature changes, the pH value of the solution changes.
  4. Thus, pH decreases on increasing the temperature.

Strongest alkali:

  1. The strongest alkali element is sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with a pH value of 14.
  2. The order of basicity is inversely proportional to electronegativity.
  3. When a cation is less electropositive, it is less likely to associate with the hydroxide, making it more available to act as a base.
  4. NaOH is a stronger base than LiOH because sodium hydroxide is completely ionic in nature whereas lithium hydroxide has some covalent characteristics according to Fajan's rule.

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