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Question

Which among the following molecules has a permanent dipole moment?

A
SiF4
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B
BF3
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C
PF3
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D
PF5
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Solution

The correct option is C PF3
(a) SiF4 has 4 σ bond pairs. Therefore, SiF4 is sp3 hybridised and has a tetrahedral shape. All the dipole moment vectors cancel out each other. Hence, the dipole moment is zero.



(b) BF3 has three σ bonds. Therefore, BF3 is sp2 hybridised. The resultant of the two dipole moment vectors cancel out with the third dipole moment vector as the bond angle is 120. Hence, it is also non polar in nature.

(c) In PF3, P has three σ bonds and one lone pair. Hence, it is sp3 hybridised and has trigonal pyramidal shape. It has two types of dipole moment vectors which cannot cancel out each other and hence it is polar in nature i.e. has a permanent dipole.

(d) In PF5, P has five σ bond pairs. Hence, it is sp3d hybridised and has trigonal bipyramidal shape. The dipole moment vectors are at 120 with each other. Hence, the resultant of the two dipole moment vectors cancel out with the third dipole moment vector. Similarly, above and below the triangular plane, dipole moment vectors cancel out each other. Therefore, PF5 is non-polar in nature and does not have any permanent dipole.

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