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Question

Which of the following elements of the Boron Family is  non-metallic in nature? 


A
Ga
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B
In
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C
Tl
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D
B
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Solution

The correct option is C B
Boron is a typical non-metal, aluminium is a metal but shows many chemical similarities to boron, and gallium, indium, thallium and nihonium are almost exclusively metallic in character.

THEORY
Group 13 Elements-The Boron Family:
The electronic configuration is [noble gas] ns2np1.
B is a typical non-metal, Al is metal but shows many chemical similarities to boron.
Ga, In, and Tl are almost exclusively metallic in character.
B is a rare element, occurs as H3BO3, Na2B4O7.10H2O, Na2B4O7.4H2O. It exists in two isotopic forms, 10B and 11B.
Al is the most abundant metal and occurs as Al2O3.2H2O and Na3AlF6.
Electronic Configuration:
Valence shell electronic configuration: ns2np1
Boron   Nobel gas core
Aluminum   Nobel gas core
Gallium   Nobel gas core + 10 d-electrons
Indium  Nobel gas core + 10 d-electrons
Thallium  Nobel gas core + 10 d-electrons + 14 f-electrons
 Physical Properties:
  1. B is non-metallic in nature.
  2. It is an extremely hard and black-coloured solid.
  3. It exists in many allotropic forms.
  4. B has an unusually high melting point due to very strong crystalline lattice.
  5. The rest of the members are soft metals with low melting points and high electrical conductivities.
  6. Ga which has a lower melting point (303K), could exist in a liquid state during summer.
  7. The density of the elements increases down the group from boron to thallium.

Chemistry

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