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Question

Which of the following statements about the adrenal gland is correct?


  1. During stress, TSH stimulates the adrenal cortex and medulla to secrete acetylcholine.

  2. During stress, the alpha cells of islets secrete insulin and simultaneously the beta cells of the islets secrete glucagon.

  3. At all times, the anterior portion secretes ACTH, while the posterior portion secretes Oxytocin.

  4. During stress, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex, and neurons of the sympathetic nervous system stimulate the adrenal medulla.


Solution

The correct option is D

During stress, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex, and neurons of the sympathetic nervous system stimulate the adrenal medulla.


The inner medulla is responsible for secretion of catecholamines, epinephrine or adrenaline, and nor epinephrine or noradrenaline. They stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, increase heart rate and the force of contraction of the heart, ventilatory rate, pupil dilation, and general alertness. They also trigger increased breakdown of glycogen, releasing large amounts of glucose into the bloodstream. All of these functions ensure that the body has enough energy and oxygenation to respond to the perceived threat.

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