The correct option is B Hormones, which interact with membrane-bound receptors, enter the cell and regulate gene expression or chromosome function.
Those hormones that are water soluble cannot pass through the cell membrane. Therefore, they bind to membrane bound receptors and produce second messengers, which regulate the metabolism of the cell.
Lipid soluble hormones, which include steroid hormones and iodothyronines, can cross the cell membrane and enter the cell. They interact with intracellular receptors and often regulate gene expression or chromosome function.
Growth factors are growth-promoting hormones that are secreted by non-endocrine tissues.
GIP or gastric inhibitory peptide is a hormone secreted by the endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract. It inhibits gastric secretion and motility.