The major groups of activities for improving crop yields can be classified as:
* Crop variety improvement
* Crop production improvement
* Crop protection management
Crop Variety Improvement :This approach depends on finding a crop that can give a good yield. Some of the factors for which variety improvement is done are:
* Higher yield: for increasing the productivity per acre.
* Improved quality: quality considerations vary from crop to crop as per the requirements.
* Biotic and abiotic resistance: crops should have sufficient resistance to biotic factors (diseases, insects and nematodes) and abiotic stresses (heat, cold, frost etc.)
* Change in maturity duration: the shorter the duration, the more economical is the variety.
* Wider adaptability: it can be grown in different climatic conditions.
* Desirable agronomic characteristics: tallness and profuse branching for fodder crops. Dwarfness is desired for cereals. This can be achieved by two methods; hybridization and genetically modified crops.
Crop Production Improvement: It involves different practices carried out by farmer to achieve higher standards of crop production. It includes the following:
* Nutrient management (manure, fertilizers and organic farming)
* Cropping pattern
Crop Protection Management: When the crop is in the field, it needs protection against pest,weeds,pathogens.