Why acid rain effects the environment? What are the sideffects of acid rain?
Effect on Aquatic Environment: Acid rain either falls directly on aquatic bodies or gets run off the forests, roads and fields to flow into streams, rivers and lakes. Over a period of time, acids get accumulated in the water and lower the overall pH of the water body. The aquatic plants and animals need a particular pH level of about 4.8 to survive. If the pH level falls below that the conditions become hostile for the survival of aquatic life. Acid rain tendency of altering pH and aluminum concentrations greatly affects pH concentration levels in surface water, thereby affecting fish as well as other aquatic life-forms. At pH levels below 5, most fish eggs cannot hatch. Lower pHs can also kill adult fish. Acid rain runoff from catchment areas into rivers and lakes has also reduced biodiversity as rivers and lakes become more acidic. Species including fish, plant and insect types in some lakes, rivers and brooks have been reduced and some even completely eliminated owing to excess acid rain flowing into the waters.
Effect on Forests: It makes trees vulnerable to disease, extreme weather, and insects by destroying their leaves, damaging the bark and arresting their growth. Forest damage due to acid rain is most evident in Eastern Europe – especially Germany, Poland and Switzerland.
Effect on Soil: Acid rain highly impacts on soil chemistry and biology. It means, soil microbes and biological activity as well as soil chemical compositions such as soil pH are damaged or reversed due to the effects of acid rain. The soil needs to maintain an optimum pH level for the continuity of biological activity. When acid rains seep into the soil, it means higher soil pH, which damages or reverses soil biological and chemical activities. Hence, sensitive soil microorganisms that cannot adapt to changes in pH are killed. High soil acidity also denatures enzymes for the soil microbes. On the same breadth, hydrogen ions of acid rain leach away vital minerals and nutrients such as calcium and magnesium.
Vegetation Cover and Plantations: The damaging effects of acid rain on soil and high levels of dry depositions have endlessly damaged high altitude forests and vegetation cover since they are mostly encircled by acidic fogs and clouds. Besides, the widespread effects of acid rain on ecological harmony have lead to stunted growth and even death of some forests and vegetation cover.
Effect on Architecture and Buildings: Acid rain on buildings, especially those constructed with limestone, react with the minerals and corrode them away. This leaves the building weak and susceptible to decay. Modern buildings, cars, airplanes, steel bridges and pipes are all affected by acid rain. Irreplaceable damage can be caused to the old heritage buildings.
Effect on Public Health: When in atmosphere, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide gases and their particulate matter derivatives like sulfates and nitrates, degrades visibility and can cause accidents, leading to injuries and deaths. Human health is not directly affected by acid rain because acid rain water is too dilute to cause serious health problems. However, the dry depositions also known as gaseous particulates in the air which in this case are nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide can cause serious health problems when inhaled. Intensified levels of acid depositions in dry form in the air can cause lung and heart problems such as bronchitis and asthma.