Write a note on any five of the common alloys?

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Some of the common alloys are:

(i) Duralumin: It is an alloy of aluminium. It contains 95% of aluminium, 4% of copper, 0.5% of magnesium and 0.5% of manganese. It is stronger and lighter than aluminium. Duralumin is used for making bodies of air crafts, helicopters, jets, kitchenware like pressure cooker, etc. It is also used for making bodies of ships (due to its resistance to seawater). It is also known as duralium.

(ii) Amalgam: An alloy of mercury and one or more other metals is known as an amalgam. It may be solid or liquid. A solution of sodium metal in liquid mercury metal is called sodium amalgam and is used as reducing agent. An amalgam of silver, tin and zinc is used by dentists for filling in teeth.

(iii) Brass: Brass is an alloy of copper (Cu) and zinc(Zn). It contains 80% of copper and 20% of zinc. It is more malleable and stronger than pure copper. Brass is used for making cooking utensils, condenser sheets, pipe, screws, bolts, wire, scientific instruments, ornaments, etc.

(iv) Bronze: It is an alloy of copper. It contains 90% of copper and 10% of tin. It is highly resistant to corrosion and used for making utensils, statues, cooking pipes, coins, hardware, etc.

(v) Solder: It is an alloy of lead (50%) and tin (50%). It is used for soldering (or welding) electrical wires together.

(vi) Alloys of Gold: The purity of gold is expressed is terms of 'carat'. Pure gold is known as 24 carat gold. It is very soft due to which it is not suitable for making jewellery. It is alloyed with either silver or copper to make it hard and more suitable for making ornaments. In India, gold ornaments are usually made of 22 carat gold. It is an alloy of gold with silver or copper.

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