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Write short notes on the following:

1. Cattle Farming.

2. High yielding variety of crops.

3. Protection of crops.

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(1) Cattle farming is the raising and management of livestock for the production of milk and labour in agricultural fields.

Female dairy animals used to obtain milk are known as milch animals. The production of milk depends upon the lactation period. Male animals are engaged in agricultural fields for labour work such as carting, irrigation and tilling. Cattle used for labour is called draught animal.

Cattle management involves maintaining proper shelter facilities and regular cleaning. Animals require a regular bath and brushing to control the spread of diseases. They should be provided with a well-balanced diet and be kept under a well-ventilated roof, which will prevent them from heat, cold and rain.

(2) High Yielding Variety (HYV) of crops

Crop plants that are resistant to diseases and that produce high yields in all regions with different conditions are known as High Yielding Varieties (HYV) of crops. Such crops have a short period of maturation and are not affected by pests. Use of HYV of crops is one of the ways through which the food requirement of the growing population can be satisfied easily. These crops can be produced by a special method known as hybridization by which two characteristics present in different organisms can be brought together into one organism. For example, hybrid varieties of rice like T-141.

(3) Protection of crops

In order to have a good quality yield, crop plants need to be protected before and after harvesting from various biotic factors such as insects, pests, weeds, mice and abiotic factors such as temperature, rainfall and moisture. Before harvesting, crops are protected from weeds and pests by spraying certain chemicals known as weedicides and pesticides. After harvesting, it is important to store grains at a safe place which is away from the reach of insects and rodents along with heat, moisture and rain. Protection of food material is important as it ensures their availability to the consumers throughout the year.

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