A submarine emits a sonar pulse, which returns from an underwater cliff in 1.02 s. If the speed of sound in salt water is 1531 m/s, how far away is the cliff?

Time taken by the sonar pulse to return, t = 1.02 s
Speed of sound in salt water, v = 1531 ms-1
Distance of the cliff from the submarine = Speed of sound * Time taken
Distance of the cliff from the submarine = 1.02 x 1531 = 1561.32 m
Distance travelled by the sonar pulse during its transmission and reception in water = 2 x Actual distance = 2d
Actual Distance, d= (Distance of the cliff from the submarine)/2
= 1561/2
= 780.31 m

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