Champaran occupies a very important place in the history of Indian freedom struggle. It is located in Indian state of Bihar.
The first popular satyagraha movement in India was the Champaran Satyagraha.
- The Champaran Satyagraha was held from 10th April to May 1917.
- The first Satyagraha movement led by Mahatma Gandhi in India was the Champaran Satyagraha.
- During the British colonial period, there was a farmers’ revolt against the British in the Champaran district of Bihar.
- Without any payment for farmers, they were forced to grow indigo, hence the farmers started protesting.
- There was much resentment and anger among many tenant farmers as they were forced to grow some indigo on a portion of their land as a condition of their tenancy under Colonial-era laws.
- The indigo planters were oppressing peasants in northern India, which was observed by Mahatma Gandhi in 1915, when he returned to India from South Africa.
- To protest against injustice, Mahatma Gandhi tried to use the same methods that he had used in South Africa to organize mass uprisings by people.
- The Champaran Satyagraha gave definite guidance to India’s freedom struggle and to India’s youth who were swaying between extremists who propagated use of violence to overthrow the British rulers in India and moderates who prescribed Indian participation within the British colonial system.
- Historically it is considered as an important revolt in the Indian Independence Movement.
- Bihar is the third largest state in India by population.
- The neighbouring states of Bihar are Jharkhand, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.
- In 2000, the southern part of Bihar was divided to form a new state named Jharkhand.
- Historically Bihar is very significant, Buddhism arose in Bihar. Gautama Buddha attained Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, a town located in the modern day district of Gaya in Bihar.
- Ancient empire of Maurya Kingdom rose in Bihar. Another famous dynasty that rose in Magadha region of Bihar was the Gupta dynasty.
- Agriculture sector employs around 80% of the state’s population which is higher than the national average.
- Among the states of India, Bihar is the eighth-largest producer of fruits and is the fourth-largest producer of vegetables.
- Patna is the capital of Bihar.
- Barauni, Dalmianagar, Hajipur are the major industrial places in Bihar.