Consider the following two statements. A) In a federation, the powers of the federal and provincial governments are clearly demarcated. B) India is a federation because the powers of the Union and State Governments are specified in the Constitution and they have exclusive jurisdiction on their respective subjects. C) Sri Lanka is a federation because the country is divided into provinces. D) India is no longer a federation because some powers of the States have been devolved to the local government bodies. Which of the statements given above are correct? i) A, B and C ii) A, C and D iii) A and B only iv) B and C only

Answer: The Correct answer is option (iii) – A and B only

  • The Indian Union is based on the principles of federalism. The Constitution declared India as a Union of States
  • Several princely states joined India, soon after Independence, 
  • A two-tier system of government was originally provided by the Constitution of India. 
  • This 2 tier system had the state Government and Central Government, which represented the Union of India.
  • Later, in the form of Municipalities and Panchayats, a third tier of federalism was added through Constitutional amendment.
  • Separate jurisdiction is enjoyed by these different tiers, just like any other federation.
  • The legislative powers between State and Union Governments was clearly divided by the Constitution – thus, it contains three lists: Union List, State List and Concurrent List.
  • In Sri Lanka, Tamil leaders want a federal system of government, but Sri Lanka continues to be a Unitary system where the complete powers are concentrated in the hands of the Central Government.

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