Define lanthanoid contraction and mention its consequences.

Lanthanoid contraction, also known as lanthanide contraction, is the steady decrease in lanthanide ions with an increase in atomic number.

Consequences of lanthanoid contraction:

  • Separation of lanthanoids is difficult due to lanthanoid contraction because due to this contraction, their ionic radii are minimal.
  • The basic strength of hydroxides decreases from La(OH)3 to Lu(OH)3 Due to lanthanoid contraction, the size of M3+ ions decreases, and there is an increase in the covalent character in M – OH bond.

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