Depletion of forest is called deforestation.
What is deforestation?
Removal of trees and plant life from a particular area for the construction of industries, agriculture, and other purposes is termed as deforestation.
Causes of deforestation
The causes of deforestation are as follows:
- Procuring land for cultivation
- Building houses and factories
- Making furniture or using wood as fuel
- Natural causes such as forest fire and severe drought can also cause deforestation
Consequences of deforestation
Consequences of deforestation are listed below
- Deforestation increases the temperature and pollution levels on the earth
- It increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
- It also reduces the level of groundwater
- Low rainfall
Among all the above consequences rainfall and desertification affect the human life adversely.
- The soil particles are held together in a place by the roots of the plants, trees, and other vegetation. In the event of water flow or a high-speed wind over the top layer of the soil, the soil particles get removed easily as there are no plants to hold it in place. Thus, Soil erosion is increased by deforestation activities. Soil loses fertility and loses humus. Hence, a fertile land, fit for agriculture turns into a desert.
- Deforestation leads to reduced rainfall because it leads to a reduction in natural recycling of moisture from the soils. This recycling takes place through vegetation and returns back in the form of rainfall.
- Deforestation also leads to floods. This is because the water holding capacity of the soil is dependent on the number of trees. As the number of tresses reduces, the soil structure changes, and the soil the particles that are held firmly gets disturbed. When there is heavy rainfall, the rainwater does not seep down into the ground and is not absorbed by the tress. Hence, it leads to flooding.