The great north Indian plain is popular for the alluvial soil. As we know that alluvial soil is fertile soil and is good for cultivation. The Great North Indian plain is divided into five parts. They are
The Bhabar Plains
- The Bhabar plains is located to the south of Shiwalik from Jammu to Assam.
- The breadth or width of bhabar plains is more in the western region as compared to the eastern region.
- The bhabar tract comprises of gravel and un-assorted sediment deposits.
- This sediment present in soil is deposited by rivers descending from the Himalayan mountains.
- This region is not good for cultivation.
- The area is popular with big trees with large roots.
The Tarai tract
- The Tarai tract is situated south to the Bhabar tract.
- The track is a marshy tract with malarial climate.
- The width of Tarai tract is more in the eastern region.
- This Tarai tract receives high rainfall and has excessive humidity, due thick forest and rich flora and fauna.
- Recently the Tarai tract in Haryana, Punjab, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh has been cleared for cultivation because it is rich in humus and organic matter.
- It is suitable for the cultivation of Wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane etc.
The Bhangar Plains
- These are older alluvial plain which represents upland alluvial tract.
- These areas are well-drained and make it suitable for cultivation.
- This area lies quiet above the flood limits of the neighbouring rivers.
- The soil is rich in humus and it gives a high yield due to rich amount of minerals and humus in the soil.
- It comprises of calcium carbonate nodules called ‘Kankars’ which are impure in nature.
The Khadar Plains
- The new plains formed due to alluvial deposit along the course of the river.
- Enriched and formed by fresh deposits of silt every year.
- The Khadar land silt comprises of silt, mud, clay, and sand.
- The Khadar lands are suitable for the cultivation of sugarcane, rice, wheat, maize and oilseeds.