Khilafat movement was initiated under the leadership of the two Ali brothers namely Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali-Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani. The movement was started to support the Sultan of Turkey whom The Muslim population in India considered their religious head.
The Khilafatists had formed a three-point programme
- The Ottoman Caliph: He should retain his empire
- The Caliph must be provided with sufficient territory so as to enable him to defeat the Islamic faith
- The Arab lands that is Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Palestine must stay under the Muslim rule.
On October 17, 1919, throughout ‘Khilafat Day’ was observed
The Khilafat movement was launched by Muslims in India to persuade the British government and rather not to abolish the caliphate. The leaders of this Khilafat movement accepted the non-cooperation movement of Gandhiji and led a joint protest against the British.
- The Khilafat Non-Cooperation Movement started on August 31 1921.
- People started to resign from government services.
- The basic necessities like buying and selling of goods, schools were put on hold.
- The Khilafat Movement and the Congress Non-Cooperation Movement merged into one nationwide movement by the year-end of 1920.
- In 1921, the Khilafat Committee put a note to all the Muslims asking not to join the police and armed forces and not to pay taxes.
- This outraged the government and the popular Ali brothers were arrested on charges of sedition.
- The Khilafat and the Congress volunteer engaged in this program were declared illegal.
- Unfortunately, the whole movement was abruptly called off on February 12, 1922, at Gandhiji’s insistence, proceeding the news of the Chauri Chaura incident.