The chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons such that atoms gets stability is known as covalent bonding. Because of this bonding atoms combine to form molecular and reduce their energies and increase the stability. The nature of covalent bonding, Geometrics of molecules are explained by Valance Bond Theory (VST).
This theory is proposed by Linus Pauling and later supported by slater. This theory explains the formation of a covalent bond between the atoms of molecules.
- A covalent bond is formed by overlapping of valance orbitals or salts containing unpaired electrons with antiparallel spin.
- The strength of overlap determine the strength of bonding between the atoms in the molecule.
- The overlapping of orbitals is always directional.
- The overlapping depends upon size and energy of the orbitals.
- A sigma bond is formed by the axial overlap of orbitals.
- A π bond is formed by the axial overlap of orbitals.
- Greater is the overlapping of orbitals stronger is the bond and stable is the molecule.