Explain what is the definition of pH with the help of examples and equation that is used for calculating it.

pH is defined as the measure of hydrogen ion concentration which is used for measuring the acidity or alkalinity of a given solution.

Following is the equation that is used for calculating the pH:
pH = -log[H+]

Values of pH

  • The range of the pH scale varies from 0 to 14
  • Solutions having a value of pH ranging 0 to 7 on pH scale are known as acidic and for the value of pH ranging 7 to 14 on pH scale are called basic solutions.
  • Solutions having the value of pH equal to 7 on pH scale are termed as neutral solutions.



Example Acid / Base/ Neutral pH value
Lemon Juice Acid 2
Orange Juice Acid 3
Water Neutral 7
Sugar solution Neutral 7
Baking soda Base 9
Liquid Drain cleaner Base 13


Applications of pH

  • To determine the strength of the solution
  • To identify the nature of the solution whether acidic or basic
  • To identify the type of soil in agriculture
  • Used for environmental monitoring

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