In cells, DNA is the nucleic acid that functions as the original blueprint for the synthesis of proteins. DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose, phosphates and a unique sequence of the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T).
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid which is directly involved in protein synthesis. RNA contains the sugar ribose, phosphates, and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U). DNA and RNA share the nitrogenous bases A, G, and C. Thymine is usually only present in DNA and uracil is usually only present in RNA.
Difference between DNA and RNA
The difference between DNA and RNA are tabulated below.
|Deoxyribonucleic acid is a long polymer. It has a deoxyribose and phosphate backbone having four distinct bases: thymine, adenine, cytosine and guanine.||Ribonucleic acid a polymer with a ribose and phosphate backbone with four varying bases: uracil, cytosine, adenine and guanine.|
|The DNA is a double-stranded molecule that has a long chain of nucleotides.||The RNA is a single-stranded molecule which has a shorter chain of nucleotides.|
|The base pairing is as follows: GC (Guanine pairs with Cytosine) A-T (Adenine pairs with Thymine).||The base pairing is as follows: GC (Guanine pairs with Cytosine) A-U (Adenine pairs with Uracil)|
|DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell and in the mitochondria.||RNA is found in the cytoplasm, nucleus and in the ribosome.|