What are the functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus and pineal gland?

Thalamus and hypothalamus are the structures in the brain. the pineal gland, a tiny endocrine gland in the posterior to the thalamus.

Pineal gland

The pineal gland is an endocrine structure of the diencephalon of the brain, and is located inferior and posterior to the thalamus. It is made up of pinealocytes. The pinealocyte cells that make up the pineal gland are known to produce and secrete the amine hormone melatonin, which is derived from serotonin. The secretion of melatonin varies significantly over a 24-hour cycle, from low levels during the day to a peak at night Pineal glands function in close association with the hypothalamus.


This part is for processing and relaying sensory information selectively to several parts of the cerebral cortex. The thalamus consists of two oval masses, each embedded in a cerebral hemisphere, that are joined by a bridge. Sensations of pain, temperature, and pressure are also relayed through the thalamus.


The hypothalamus is the main point of interaction for the body’s two physical control systems: the nervous system, which transmits information in the form of minute electrical impulses, and the endocrine system, which brings about changes of state through the release of chemical factors. The hypothalamus is the control centre for the stimuli that underlie eating and drinking.

Both thalamus and hypothalamus are part of an area of the brain known as the diencephalon.

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