In each somatic cell, there are 23 homologous chromosomes.
What are chromosomes?
Chromosomes are thread-like structures in which DNA is tightly packaged within the nucleus.
- DNA is coiled around proteins called histones, which provide structural support.
- Chromosomes help ensure that DNA is replicated and distributed appropriately during cell division.
- Each chromosome has a centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections – the p (short) arm and the q (long) arm.
- In humans, 46 chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs, including 22 pairs of chromosomes called autosomes.
- Autosomes are labelled 1-22 for reference.
- Each chromosome pair consists of one chromosome inherited from the mother and one from the father.