Phosphorus is an element which is part of Group 15A neutral Phosphorus Atom has five valence electrons. These are contained in the third energy level of the atom. Due to the number of valence electrons, Phosphorus is capable of forming three bonds with other elements. The Valence Electrons are found in different types of orbitals. Two are in the s-orbital (a circular orbital) while the other 3 are in p-orbitals (bell-shaped orbitals). There are a total of 4 orbitals in the valence shell to minimize electron-electron repulsion. Phosphorus is necessary for some functions in life and is an essential component of fertile soil.